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Adobe Photoshop is a computer application software used to edit and manipulate digital images. Photoshop was developed in 1987 by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988.

Photoshop was originally conceived as a subset of the popular design software Adobe Illustrator, and Adobe expected to sell a modest several hundred copies per month.


Expectations for Photoshop’s success were tempered by concerns over the capabilities of personal computers (PCs) in the early 1990s to run the program because it required more computer memory than most PCs came with or even, in some cases, than could be installed. Nevertheless, the software sold well, driving sales of newer PCs with more memory and becoming known as one of the first “killer apps” (an application that influences hardware sales).


Photoshop became integral to many diverse industries, including publishing, Web design, medicine, film, advertising, engineering, and architecture. In 1995 Adobe purchased the rights to Photoshop from the Knoll brothers for $34.5 million. The demand for Photoshop rose as computers improved and digital photography technology advanced. The program’s success spawned companies that produce add-ons designed specifically for Photoshop compatibility.




CPU - the Central Processing Unit. The processing chip is the “brain” of a computer. (“Intel Inside”, AMD/Celeron Processor)


Disk - a spinning platter made of magnetic or optically etched material on which data can be stored. (Main part of a Hard Drive)

Driver - a file on a computer that tells it how to communicate with an add-on piece of equipment (like a printer driver).


Ethernet - a protocol for fast communication and file transfer across a network.


Hard Drive - a large-capacity storage device made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case. (LaCie, WD, Iomega, Hitachi – Internal/External)

Initialize - to format a disk for use in the computer; creates a new directory and arrange the tracks for the recording of data.

Installer - software used to install a program on your hard drive. (DMG, TAR, ISO)

Operating System - the system software that controls the computer. (OSX Yosemite, Windows 8)

Partition - a subdivision of the surface of a hard drive that is defined and used as a
separate drive.

PC - an acronym for personal computer, commonly used to refer to an IBM or IBM clone computer that uses DOS. (Dell, IBM, Apple, Lenovo)

Peripheral - an add-on component to your computer. (Printer, Scanner, WebCam, Mouse)


Port - a connection socket, or jack on the Mac. (USB, Firewire, VGA, DVI)

Server - a central computer dedicated to sending and receiving data from other computers


Start-up Disk - the disk containing system software and is designated to be used to start the computer. (My Computer, MAC HD)

Surge Suppressor - a power strip that has circuits designed to reduce the effects of the surge in electrical power.


System File - a file in the System folder that allows your Mac to start and run.


System Folder - an all-important folder that contains at least the System file and the Finder.



Bitmap (.bmp): The BMP file format, also known as bitmap image file or device independent bitmap (DIB) file format or simply a bitmap, is a raster graphics image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently of the display device (such as a graphics adapter), especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating

GIF (.gif): an acronym for “Graphic Interchange Format”, an image format type generated specifically for computer use. Its resolution is usually very low (72 dpi, or that of your computer screen), making it undesirable for printing purposes.

Photoshop Document (.psd): A . PSD file is a layered image file used in Adobe PhotoShop. PSD, which stands for Photoshop Document, is the default format that Photoshop uses for saving data. PSD is a proprietary file that allows the user to work with the images individual layers even after the file has been saved.

JPEG (.jpg): an acronym for “Joint Photographic Experts Group” is a commonly used standard method of compressing photographic images on the Web. JPEG graphics are capable of reproducing a full range of colors while still remaining small enough for Web use.

Portable Networks Graphic (.png): Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression. PNG was created as an improved, non-patented replacement for Graphics Interchange Format (GIF), and is the most used lossless image compression format on the Internet.

RAW (.dng, .nef, .crw): A camera raw image file contains minimally processed data from the image sensor of either a digital camera, image scanner, or motion picture film scanner. Raw files are named so because they are not yet processed and therefore are not ready to be printed or edited with a bitmap graphics editor.

Tagged Image File Format (.tiff): The ability to store image data in a lossless format makes a TIFF file a useful image archive, because, unlike standard JPEG files, a TIFF file using lossless compression (or none) may be edited and re-saved without losing image quality. This is not the case when using the TIFF as a container holding compressed JPEG.

Encapsulated PostScript (.eps): Encapsulated Postscript Vector graphics (Adobe Illustrator) EPS is a file extension for a graphics file format used in vector-based images in Adobe Illustrator. EPS stands for Encapsulated PostScript. An EPS file can contain text as well as graphics.


Computer graphics: refers to visual images made with the assistance of computers. Computer graphics are often made with software called drawing, painting, illustrating, and photographic programs or applications.

2D Graphics: Displayed representation of a scene or an object along two axes of reference: height and width (x and y).


3D Graphics: Displayed representation of a scene or an object that appears to have three axes of reference: height, width, and depth  (x, y, and z).

Vector Graphic: Adobe Illustrator a graphic made up of mathematically defined curves and line segments called vectors. Vector graphics can be edited by moving and resizing either the entire graphic or the lines and segments that compose the graphic.

Digitize: Photoshop, Video, Digital Photography, etc to convert linear, or analog, data into digital data which can be used by the computer.

DPI - an acronym for Dots Per Inch - a gauge of visual clarity on the printed page or on the computer screen.

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